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The Mind Benders, Scientology

by Cyril Vosper

6. Auditing

Auditing, also known as Processing, is defined as: "The application of Scientology processes and procedures to someone by a trained auditor. The exact definition of auditing is: The action of asking a preclear a question (which he can understand and answer), getting an answer to that question and acknowledging him for that answer." It is applied to individuals or groups by an Auditor - one who listens and computes.

The action of auditing was, in the years 1950-52, somewhat comparable to psycho-analytic techniques. This was the time of Dianetics and Hubbard has claimed his method to be a more logical development from Sigmund Freud's than the multitude of "schools" which sprang out of the original pronouncements of the founder of psycho-analysis.

Though the methodology of auditing was a good deal different from more mainstream psychotherapies, the motives were similar - to take the unknown or partly known areas of past experience and by inspection to let the patient redetermine his earlier conclusions. An identical theory lay behind these forms of psychotherapy - that a mechanistic cause and effect predetermined human thought processes. The same mystical outlook was present when it was decided that a life force existed in each individual organism capable of causing or erasing psychosomatic disease. To Hubbard's credit, he has, albeit crudely, attempted to give full validity to this mystic concept rather than brushing it under the nearest carpet as an embarrassing side issue.

The imprecise nature of psycho-analytic free associative techniques, in which the patient is permitted to take his own time and make his own judgements as to what he will inspect (and it is an error of magnitude for the analyst to direct his attention to any area), was replaced in Dianetics by a specific directing of attention. At the same time, the evaluation with which the psycho-analyst attempts to increase his patient's understanding and tolerance of himself and his mental mechanisms - in its crudest form, the labelling of attitudes to make it seem to the patient that at least someone knows what is going on inside his head - was replaced by a stated categorical refusal to evaluate or invalidate in any way whatsoever the material, attitudes, thoughts and conclusions of the preclear. "This term covers anyone who is not a clear; however it is principally used to describe a person who, through Scientology processing, is finding out more about himself and life."

The refusal to evaluate and invalidate the data of the preclear is one of the fundamental tenets of auditing. The only conclusion which is right is the one arrived at by the preclear. Evaluation and invalidation of the preclear's outlook renders him less capable of reaching right-for-him conclusions and such conclusions are ultimately the only right ones. To indicate the importance placed on this, Hubbard, from time to time, has issued Codes of Conduct for Scientology Auditors. The Auditor's Code of AD 18 (After Dianetics 18 = 1968!) gives:

(1) I promise not to evaluate for the preclear or tell him he should think about his case in session.

(2) I promise not to invalidate the preclear's case or gains in or out of session.

These two primary promises are followed by twenty-six more, the majority of which are more specific definitions of how not to evaluate or invalidate, e.g.: (10) I promise never to walk off from a preclear in session; (22) I promise never to use the secrets of a preclear divulged in session for punishment or personal gain; (27) I promise not to permit sexual liberties or violation of the mentally unsound.

Although so great an importance is placed on these factors, there is, of course, a generalised evaluation and invalidation of the individual from the moment he comes in contact with Scientology. In addition, as will be seen later, there is a very definite and arbitrary standard of behaviour placed on anyone in contact with Scientology which can have the effect of being evaluative or invalidative of his personal attitudes.

Despite the differing emphasis placed on sections of the mind and the differences of approach towards therapy, Dianetics could be regarded loosely as a radical form of psychoanalysis. It is quicker and more shallow but it falls within the same bracket.

With Scientology, these differences widened. Auditing became more precise and the attempt to reclaim specific memories and to derive understandings of present conduct from them was replaced by an attempt to find basic causes. In other words, not to necessarily inspect every aspect of an Engram in order to relieve the stresses, but to establish the basic reasons why the individual got the Engram in the first place. The example given earlier of the invalidated goal being the only portion of the mental anatomy which it is necessary to contact in order to resolve vast quantities of incidents. It could thus be regarded as dealing more with the spiritual being and placing ever less importance on the mental state. By raising the abilities of the individual, the spiritual being, not only would the aberrative influences from the past die away and become unused but the present and future resistance to future aberration would be increased. The assumption is that reactive mechanisms are useful to the Thetan from the time that he has lost self-confidence in his ability to face up to life. With the decline of his abilities, he substitutes mental mechanisms to do his living for him. He is perfectly capable of handling all aspects of his own life without substitutes or pre-programmed postulates and the only thing which stops him from doing so is that he considers he cannot do it.

The emphasis of psychotherapies is upon the eradication of mental aberration and to bring the patient to a state of "normal" or "acceptable" within our current social mores. Scientology is a break with this tradition since mental aberration is shown to be only the result of lessened spiritual awareness, certainty and ability. The ultimate goal of Scientology is to produce a being with vastly improved capabilities far beyond anything previously envisaged as possible for human beings. To re-establish the Thetan in his rightful position of superiority and freedom and not dictated to by out-of-present-time conclusions.

The Thetan is the only portion of the living unit which can effect changes in the organism. In auditing, the Thetan is addressed exclusively. If mental problems are inspected on a specific basis it is only because they are distracting from the main purpose of the auditing. If a preclear has a Present Time Problem in his session such as the arrival that morning of a huge tax demand or his girlfriend telling him the previous evening that she was pregnant, or even if he wants to use the toilet, then these are handled only so far as to enable the preclear to devote his full attention to the auditing. If auditing concentrated on the day-to-day problems the preclear runs into, it would be a never-ending procedure and would not equip him with the ability to handle his own problems. A situation would develop like the "pet psycho-analyst". Spiritual self-sufficiency is the goal, not never-ending dependence on Scientology.

This is one of the reasons why hypnosis, psychiatric surgery, drug therapies and electro-convulsive therapy are rejected by Scientology since these are dealing with effects rather than causes and usually render the Thetan incapable of controlling his own mind because control is taken over by an outside agency.

The Thetan made the mistakes which have reduced him to his present level. He is the only one with the ability to get out of his self-constructed trap. Only he can change his mind.

To detail all of the processes which were tried during the period 1950 to about 1966, when Hubbard considered he had established a sufficiently reliable and rapid set of techniques, would require an enormous book. Hubbard has never described, in any detail, his research methods. From observation, it seems that he used a fairly pragmatic approach to gradually refine his work. Over the years, the number of Scientology organisations around the world has increased. Every auditing session report form, detailing the process used and the results, was forwarded to him for analysis. From two or three years' experience of being a staff auditor at the organisation in London, I can vouch that he read carefully every word I had written down. His comments were extremely perceptive! This inspection of every report must be a colossal job in itself. Add to this the writing of books, hundreds of hours of lecturing, writing Technical Bulletins and Policy Letters, detailed personal management of every Scientology organisation in the world, answering within a few days some 600-1,000 personal letters a week AND getting married and having four beautiful children. If nothing else could ever be said about L. Ron Hubbard, he could never be accused of shirking!

If the first goal to be achieved was the separation of the Thetan from his Reactive Mind and then the strengthening of the Thetan's independence, it follows that exteriorisation procedures, such as "Be three feet back of your head", were the most obvious course. Many different approaches were used but it was found that the majority of people needed their minds. To break the habits of aberration was not that simple. Hubbard, in his own words, "was forced to go further South", to take a more gentle line. One could not expect "Thetan muscles", so long unused, to be able to cope with the exercises necessary.

Various means whereby the Thetan could be persuaded to take control and responsibility for his environment, in the first instance his body, were developed over a number of years and some of these still exist. By getting the Thetan to take control directly of his body, a bypass of his mind was established and in this way the Thetan's confidence was raised. Communication was raised by getting the preclear to communicate under ideal conditions. "Havingness" - "The concept of being able to reach" - was raised by getting the preclear to reach. A vast amount has been written about "Havingness". When the concept was first refined and pinpointed it was thought to be of universal application since it was reasoned that the individual kept his mind close to him because he could HAVE nothing else. If the Thetan could be persuaded it was safe and possible to have or reach on a direct basis, then it could be demonstrated he did not have to have only his mind.

Hubbard strove to develop his techniques to be universal in their beneficial application (certain exceptions include those with brain damage, including psycho-surgery; people under habit-forming drugs, whether narcotic or medicinal; those undergoing medical treatment, unless full co-operation of the doctor could be obtained; anyone who has ever been certified insane; and certain other less obvious categories, such as members or ex-members of the Communist Party - neo-Nazis would appear acceptable - and journalists).

The assumption was made early on that although there would be wide variations in the past experiences of each individual, yet there would be common motives behind the gradual acquisition of aberration. In this respect, all Thetans throughout the universe are the same. They have been forced to the same fundamental considerations and opinions of their environment and their approach to one another. Under the Scientological definitions for life, it is assumed any and all Thetans can only be reduced in awareness by certain types of event. As given earlier, the basic goals of all Thetans are the same though the methods to achieve them vary from individual to individual. As these goals shrivel in dynamism so the Thetan withdraws from his native aggressive approach.

The aberration which encysted the goals and eventually convinced the Thetan he could not and was not worthy enough to ever achieve his goals was brought about by a series of errors on his part.

These errors are known as Overt Acts, Withholds and Motivators, defined as follows:

"Overt Act (Overt): Harmful or contra-survival act. Precisely, it is an act of commission or omission that harms the greater number of dynamics. Therefore a failure to eradicate something or stop someone that would harm broadly would be an Overt Act. Equally, assistance to something that would harm a greater number of dynamics would also be an Overt Act." On the assumption that all Thetans are essentially well-intentioned, it is clear that if the Thetan were to commit an Overt Act, he would deny his own basic goodness. He may possibly have committed his original Overt Acts inadvertently. More likely, he was "made guilty" by another Thetan - "Don't you know Catfish Catching is the most grotesque crime this side of the galaxy?" The poor old Thetan starts to feel guilty and to reduce his expansiveness when there was nothing wrong with his goal "To catch a Catfish". To make someone guilty is the most self-destructive Overt Act of all, incidentally.

With an Overt Act the Thetan feels genuinely to be a harmful action, he demonstrates his goodness by hiding it from others to produce the Withhold - "Undisclosed contra-survival act. A no-action after the fact of action, in which the individual has done or been an accessory to doing something which is a transgression against some moral or ethical code consisting of agreements to which the individual has subscribed in order to guarantee, with others, the survival of a group with which he is co-existing or has co-acted towards survival".

A form of Withhold and often linked with the Overt Act to make a sequence of behaviour is the Motivator - "The consideration and dramatisation that one has been wronged by the action of another or a group, and which is characterised by constant complaint with no real action undertaken to resolve the situation. This reveals that the Motivator is being held in place to justify Overt Acts committed by the individual, which is easily handled in auditing".

The Overt Act theory finally distinguishes Scientology from Dianetics and most other psychotherapies since it states the individual to not be ultimately harmed by what happens to him but to "pull the harmful things in on himself" by way of self-punishment. He makes Motivators in order to wash out the Overt Act but never succeeds in erasing it since it can only be erased by conscious inspection of the events of the Overt Act. Thus we come to one of the most common features of auditing:

"What have you done?"

"What have you withheld?"

These questions repeated alternately bring the preclear to confront those actions against any portion of his environment, including his body, and enable him to "come into present time" about them. What has been has been. Guilt, regret and remorse are futile attempts to correct the errors of the past. Perhaps these errors could be useful in terms of experience although this is very doubtful, but it is obviously impossible to turn the clock back and relive past events in a different way. Other than facing up to past events and taking responsibility for them, the only alternative for the Thetan is to hide them or pretend they did not happen, or make excuses. These alternative methods often involve the introduction of Motivators.

In order to apply this process and most others, the auditor sits facing the preclear across a table. The Hubbard Electro-psychometer or E-meter - "an electronic device for measuring the mental state and change of state of Homo sapiens and uncleared individuals", which is a form of skin galvanometer similar to but simpler than the "Lie Detector" of the American police - stands on the table. The electrodes, two empty soup-cans - "cheap, easily obtained and as good as anything else" - are held by the preclear. The auditor watches mental changes and reactions on the dial of the E-meter. A large number of words - three books and about twenty bulletins - have been written on the E-meter but the main point is that emotionally charged subjects such as sex, bodily health, Engrams, Overt Acts, problems, "read" by causing reactions on the needle of the meter.

Sometimes other, more extraordinary subjects read. One student of an Advance Clinical Course in London in 1958 spent some dozens of hours on the subject of Horse-Chestnuts:

"What about a Horse-Chestnut, can you confront?"

"What about a Horse-Chestnut, can you be responsible for?"

His answers became profoundly colourful after a few hours ...

The E-meter is essential for all modern auditing with but a few exceptions. It informs the auditor, first of the charged subjects which are worrying the preclear and therefore those areas to pursue to bring relief, and it also tells the auditor when the emotional charge has been erased from a topic. Since the seizure in January 1963 of approximately 100 E-meters by the Food and Drug Administration of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (this case is suggested to have been won by Scientologists in a publication called The Findings: on the U.S. Food and Drug Agency together with an innuendo that the F.D.A. is influenced by the Mafia. Although the Court of Appeals reversed the earlier decision banning the E-meter because "the case was improperly framed, rather than that the Scientologists' devices and literature were absolutely protected" ... it would appear that a new trial would be in order), E-meters are now described as Confessional Aids.

E-meter "needle pattern" or the form of action recorded by the needle is of great importance when trying to determine the preclear's state of mind. Heavy needle movements, for instance, such as violent swings, sticks, "rocket reads" and falls, indicate that the preclear is "right in session" and confronting worthwhile material. Slight or nil reaction to the questions, usually accompanied by a slow "climb" of the needle to the left of the dial, indicates that the preclear is either not "in session" or he is unwilling or incapable of confronting the subject. Much of the skill of auditing lies in the ability of the auditor to interpret his E-meter accurately. When the preclear has thoroughly inspected the subject - has erased all charge - the meter needle will "float" without any reaction.

At this point a number of notable phenomena occur. Physically, the preclear will feel and look much more alert and alive and will usually smile broadly. If questioned, he will claim to feel relaxed, warm and in control of his body. Mentally, he will usually have cognited on some fundamental point in his life. One Scientology definition of a cognition is: "A new realisation of life. It results in a higher degree of awareness and consequently a greater ability to succeed with one's endeavours in life." Hubbard has also described cognitions as viewing again some important factor which had been forgotten or twisted. The preclear may say: "I've just realised this shyness I've always felt is because I was really afraid that people might find out what I'd done. I feel good about it now."

These times in auditing when the preclear feels great and his needle floats and the future looks rosy are regarded in Scientology as of the greatest importance. Having experienced many of these Release points, I must agree they are just like being released from some mental prison; often one which I did not realise I was in. The Release could be the psychologist's Euphoria - an abnormal and irresponsible feeling of buoyant vigour and health - but it is impossible to determine what the state of Release is, since tests to prove or disprove any of Hubbard's discoveries are obviously not permitted in Scientology. The feeling of being released does not last long. Hubbard claims that at the moment of Release, the Reactive Mind is keyed out and is not influencing the preclear. This is his natural-Thetan-only state without a millstone of aberration around his neck. The temporary nature of the Release point is explained by the fact that the Reactive Bank is more powerful than the Thetan and he is dependent upon it until such time as he is able to entirely dispense with it.

Dianetic Sub-zero Grades (Lock, Secondary, Engram); Grade O (Communication Release); Grade I (Problems Release); Grade II (Relief Release); Grade III (Freedom Release); Grade IV (Ability Release); Grade V (Power Release) Grade VA (Power Plus Release); Grade Vl (Whole-Track Release).

These are the major points of Release which every preclear must experience in his processing towards Clear. These are not the only Releases possible since every subject which is giving difficulty can give a minor feeling of release when it is sorted out satisfactorily.

A revealing characteristic of Scientology which clouds any factual assessment is the attention and exaggeration placed upon the achievement of the Release. It is very sweet for a newly released preclear to be fully acknowledged for his achievement. For example: The instant the auditor has noted the floating needle on the E-meter, he says: "You have a floating needle, that's the end of the auditing session. We will now go to the p.c. examiner and she will check it." Off they go, preclear smiling broadly. After the checks by the examiner, who lays it on heavily that the preclear has made a truly remarkable step forward on the Road to Total Freedom, they go on to the Department of Success. Here again, effusive congratulations and a request to write a success story. These stories are probably the most insidiously effective part of the conditioning of a Scientologist.

"I have finally discovered what I was doing wrong all my life and can say with conviction that never again will I make those mistakes. I am eternally grateful to my auditor, the staff of this great organisation and especially L. Ron Hubbard, who gave this priceless gift to all Mankind. Thank you Scientology." Some success stories are even more gushing.

This is written within thirty minutes of the preclear hitting Release. If the following day he feels the same morbid way he has felt for years, it is very difficult to take back his success story. If he refuses to write the story, he is obviously not a Release and is either an Ethics case (see later) or needs more auditing.

Does not the promise of more of this stuff to come, more Releases, more of this grand feeling of belonging to the only movement for human betterment on earth, sound very like conditioning? Does not the writing of a Success Story sound like a gentle blackmail?

Does not this whole pattern smack of a precisely constructed trap? With one hand Scientology releases the preclear; with the other it traps him into loyalty and gratitude.

In the majority of instances, the preclear Is genuine in his praises. A Release is indeed a remarkable experience and presumably has benefit. Even if only for a few hours, a person can be given a glimpse of how joyous an experience life can be, and this can never be valueless. To get a Release is quite different and more profound than to tale a psychedelic trip but there are similar elements in both. Acuity and the sense of peaceful and separate observation are in common.

Yet one is left with the feeling that something of potentially enormous value is being sold short. The discoveries of Scientology, the auditing and training techniques and the concepts of human worth and potential are equally as valid and probably superior to any other in psychotherapy, yet these seem unseen for their real value. Exaggeration is substituted for devious purposes - to get total obedience to the credo of Scientology, to recognise the god-like capabilities of L. Ron Hubbard and to get money. For after our preclear has written his Success Story, he is escorted to the Registrar and signed up for more auditing and training. He then goes to the Cashier and pays. Scientology really knows how to sew up a prospect!

Though the Overt Act-Withhold processes are very important in the structure of Scientology auditing and the theory is responsible for much of the astonishing actions of Scientologists, it is only one aspect of the whole of present-day auditing.

A group of processes known as the CCH's - Control, Communication, Havingness - are a set formula for improving the preclear's degree of control of his mind and body; his free communication with his environment unaffected by reactive stimuli and his tolerance and ability to reach his environment. These processes have existed as a set of procedures since about 1959 and were, in their early days, regarded as the complete answer to the resolution of every case. Now they are used for badly off cases, those who are unable to cope with the more standard procedures. Hubbard has claimed the CCH's as the answer to neurotic and psychotic cases but because on these cases the CCH's are likely to take hundreds of hours, he advises that these poor unfortunates not be audited until such time as Scientology has full facilities to handle them. In addition, the hundreds of hours spent on each of such cases could be spent on clearing dozens of ordinary folk with a much greater beneficial result for the peace and prosperity of the world. Scientology is engaged in a desperate race against the Atomic Bomb and more recently it has also taken on the vile psychiatric demons who are rapidly gaining mental domination of the world.

CCH-1: "Give me that hand", commands the auditor with Tone 40, meaning that he is totally in control, does not react to anything the preclear does, and always ensures that the preclear carries out the command exactly as given, no more, no less.

The preclear puts his hand into the auditor's and with a light squeeze the auditor places the hand back into the preclear's lap. "Thank you", he says, with Tone 40 intention.

This goes on for as long as necessary to get the full conscious compliance of the preclear.

"Give me that hand." After some minutes or hours of this profoundly boring process, the psychotic preclear (or, even, the terribly sane one too) may well put his hand in his mouth, on his head or may sit on it - anything to vary the routine.

The auditor, maintaining his Tone 40 attitude, uses only as much force as necessary to get a precise compliance with the command "Thank you" and returns the hand to the preclear's lap.

The idea of this process is that the preclear is not in control of his body. It is not he who makes it move about, blush, stammer, get arthritis or any of the other things bodies do, but his Reactive Mind. By taking control of the preclear's body, the auditor manages to wrest control away from the Reactive Mind and eventually returns it to the preclear who then knows his body does not have to be controlled on a stimulus-response basis but can be precisely controlled by him. The main reason for the preclear's compliance with this process always seemed to me to be due to the fact that he was paying two guineas an hour for it and didn't want to waste his money by playing the fool. It is a neat sounding theory though.

Similar in motive is CCH-2 - earlier known as 8C when developed in about 1955.

Auditor and preclear stand near a wall and face one another. The auditor holds the preclear's arm. He points with his right hand.

"Look at that Wall" ... "Thank you."

"Walk over to that Wall." The preclear walks or in some cases is assisted or forced to walk to the other wall. "Thank you."

"With your right hand touch that Wall" ... "Thank you."

"Turn around" ... "Thank you."

"Look at that Wall" ... "Thank you."

Back and forth they go. The preclear can chatter, sing, sob, abuse the auditor, anything - after all when the Reactive Mind feels its hold weakening on the preclear's body, it can get pretty wild - but in true Tone 40 style, the auditor keeps on relentlessly, until the preclear is in Present Time and happily complying in the control of his own body.

Beyond helping the Thetan back into control of his own body, CCH-2 benefits the preclear by making control a subject which is safe and by bringing him into Present Time. Since anyone, by definition, is not in Present Time but stuck in all manner of incidents in his past, any process which raises the awareness of the real here and now environment is bound to weaken the dependence on the tenuous reactive memories. He discovers that he can reach safely to the environment and therefore can have it.

CCH-3: Hand-Space Mimicry: - consists of the auditor putting his hands in front of him, palms facing the preclear.

"Place your hands against mine. Follow and contribute to their motion."

The auditor then makes slow and simple motions with his hands for fifteen to thirty seconds.

"Did you follow and contribute to the motion?"

"Yes but I could do it better."

"Thank you."

This is run less formally since it is an attempt to establish a heightened communication and rapport between auditor and preclear. It is assumed that the preclear is thoroughly in session and willing to be controlled and audited from the previous CCH-1 and 2. When the process is going well and both parties are satisfied:

"Place your hands half an inch from mine. Follow and contribute to the motion."

Space between the hands means there is again a transference from dependence on the auditor to independent action by the preclear. He can do anything he wants with his hands but by assigning the power of decision-making to the auditor who is operating as a precise and predictable control point, the preclear is demonstrating that a guide is possible and acceptable. This is essential throughout auditing for it is not a matter of cutting aberration away like a surgeon. The auditor can only act as a guide. He guides the preclear through a maze. He does not carry him. The preclear must trust the auditor's judgement to take the right path but the preclear covers the route under his own steam.

CCH-4: Book Mimicry: - extends this demand on the preclear to accept guidance. The auditor holds a book in front of him:

"I am going to make a motion with this book. When I have finished I will hand it to you. I want you to mimic the motion mirror-image fashion." The auditor makes a slow and simple motion with the book, hands it to the preclear who mimics the motion as best he can.

AUDITOR (CAUSE)                          \
  ----------------------------------------->               -------
          AUDITING QUESTION              /                    ^
                                                            / | \
                                         |  COMM LAG-         |
                                         |  time interval     |
                                         |  until preclear    |
                                         |  answers           |
                                         |                    |
                                       \ | /                  |
AUDITOR (EFFECT)                         v                    |
    /                         PRECLEAR (CAUSE)                | UNIT
  <--------------------------------------                     | OF
    \                     PRECISE REPLY TO QUESTION           | TIME
RECEIPT, DUPLICATION AND                                      |
UNDERSTANDING OF REPLY                                        |
  |                                                           |
  |                                                           |
  |                                                           |
\ | /                                                         |
  v                                                           |
                                                            \ | /
AUDITOR (CAUSE)                          \                    v
  ----------------------------------------->               -------
  ACKNOWLEDGES REPLY WITH                /
                                 STOPS ATTENTION BEING LEFT ON
                                 ANY EARLIER PART OF CYCLE


This process increases the communication between auditor and preclear and again demonstrates that duplication in communication is safe and possible. Scientology Axiom Twenty-eight: "Communication is the consideration and action of impelling an impulse or particle from source-point across a distance to receipt-point, with the intention of bringing into being at the receipt-point a duplication of that which emanated from the source-point. The formula of communication is: Cause, Distance, Effect, with Attention and Duplication."

Hubbard has described communication as the universal solvent. It is also the key corner of the Affinity-Reality-Communication Triangle. ARC is a fundamental of Scientology. By the increase of communication, one automatically causes an increase of the other corners of the triangle.

            /^\    / | \    /^\
            /     /  |  \     \
           /     /   |   \     \
          /     /    |    \     \
         /     /     /\    \     \
        /     /   /  |   \  \     \
       /     / /     |       \     \
      /     /        |        \     \
     /     /       /  \        \     \
    /     /     /AFFINITY\      \     \
   /     /   /              \    \     \
  /     / /                    \  \     \
 /     /                           \

Scientology Axiom Twenty-five: "Affinity is a scale of attitudes which falls away from the co-existence of static, through the interpositions of distance and energy, to create identity, down to close proximity but mystery.

"By the practice of IS-NESS (Beingness) and NOT-IS-NESS (refusal to Be) individuation progresses from the Knowingness of complete identification down through the introduction of more and more distance and less and less duplication, through Lookingness, Emotingness, Effortingness, Thinkingness, Symbolisingness, Eatingness, Sexingness, and so through to not-Knowingness (Mystery). Until the point of Mystery is reached, some communication is possible, but even at Mystery an attempt to communicate continues. Here we have, in the case of an individual, a gradual falling away from the belief that one can assume a complete Affinity down to the conviction that all is a complete Mystery. Any individual is somewhere in this Know-to-Mystery Scale."

Scientology Axiom Twenty-six: "Reality is the agreed-upon apparency of existence." Axiom Twenty-seven: "An actuality can exist for one individually, but when it is agreed with by others it can be said to be a reality."

Since his Reactive Mind is in close proximity but mystery to the preclear, it is essential that through Communication, Affinity, and thereby distance, be established between the preclear and his Reactive Mind to such a degree as to finally bring about co-existence - full knowledge of, rather than mystery - and therefore to cause the erasure of aberration.

If communication be the sole ability from which all others stem, then it is of paramount importance in auditing that a free interchange of communication be established and maintained. As auditing progresses, so the preclear's willingness and ability to communicate increases. Daily events which might reduce the rapport are carefully inspected with the use of the E-meter and are handled to the degree that they no longer intrude. Great significance is placed upon the maintenance of communication throughout the session. Precise techniques exist to get the preclear into session and to keep him there. For instance, should the auditor note on his E-meter that a preclear is in session and working well with full attention and determination and that suddenly the preclear goes out of session, his attention wanders and the E-meter needle starts an untypical slow rise to the left, then the auditor must postpone any further auditing commands until he has made the preclear inspect what has happened. "What happened there?" he may well ask. The preclear pinpoints the exact time, place, form and event and the session can continue.

Only by the precise pinpointing of an event can the aberration be erased. "Oh, I just get a feeling you didn't like me anymore" is not good enough. The preclear must be jogged, cajoled or forced into as precise a description as possible. "After that last command, I wanted to say something but you said 'Thank you' with a curt sound to your voice and I decided not to say anything else." That will usually get the preclear back into session, especially if he is allowed to say what he wanted to say.

Auditing is a gradient scale of tasks each of which must be satisfactorily achieved before the next one is attempted. The CCH processes described are for preclears in poor shape. The only lower processes are Assists: "Simple, easily done processes that can be applied to anyone to help them recover more rapidly from accidents, mild illness or upsets." They consist of getting the individual to place his attention on the point of injury or the source of pain. Pain is regarded as caused by a Stuck Flow, that is, the normal communication flows through the body are opposed by some other flow and create a ridge of pain. By direct communication to the point of injury, the Thetan is able to disperse the pain. The only assist recommended for unconsciousness is the command: "Lie that body on that bed (or wherever it happens to be)" and, assuming that a reply has come since the command has been obeyed by the body remaining on the bed, "Thank you". This process endeavours to bring the Thetan back into communication with his body after he has relinquished communication with it by going unconscious.

The theories sound plausible, understandable enough to gain wide acceptance outside of the professionals and simple enough to be possibly true. It would be useful to establish statistical tests on Hubbard's work. They might well prove him right or they might show his claims to be no more than wishful thinking.

Although Scientology has often been described, scathingly, as more mystical than the "sciences" of psychoanalysis and other psychotherapies, this description ignores the end results of analysis and auditing. Scientology auditing induces an aggressive, if often ill-judged, dynamism towards life. Scientologists get out into the big wide world and dish out invites to lectures, interfere in the placid flow of, for instance, the National Association for Mental Health, make absurd statements about psychiatrists and Ministers of the Crown, take opinion polls on how the general public feels about them (for instance, should a Scientologist wear a white shirt and business suit or should he wear kipper ties, long hair and beads), all with a profound conviction of their own importance in this world where nothing is important. By contrast, psycho-analysis, when most successful, must produce an acceptance, a constant self-inspection more akin to the Eastern religions than the intent Western practicalities.

The indeterminate end result of analysis, for two-and-half to ten years in duration and costing vastly more than Scientology auditing and training, must needs make psycho-analysis the plaything of the idle and rich. It is not an answer to the world's psychological problems.

If, as seems more than likely, all psychological therapies are solely a matter of faith, either in the therapeutic system or the therapist, then Scientology is far and away the most brilliant psychotherapy so far devised.

Hypnotherapy seems to indicate that function is able to monitor structure, which is basically the attitude of Scientology. Indeed many of Hubbard's theories seem to be most easily tested with hypnotism. For instance, the autonomic nervous system which controls breathing, heart beat, glandular secretions and so on and is, by definition, not under the control of the conscious nervous system can be controlled in certain circumstances, under hypnotism, and therefore by some sort of conscious intervention. Since hypnotists appear unable to formulate any explanation for hypnotism - the suspension of reason and the conscious critical function seems hardly an explanation - it is difficult to compare their interpretations with Scientological theorising. Nevertheless, the intense faith which is a requisite for a continued survival in Scientology is comparable in some respects to a hypnotic rapport which extends into every aspect of life.

This faith is broader in application than hypnosis, since Scientology is a way of life and the therapeutic aspects of auditing and to some extent training are only a means to the end of making a much better way of life for oneself. Hypnotherapy and the other forms of psychotherapy often claim to regard the individual as a whole rather than as a case or a particular psychological manifestation, yet none of them come near to the all-embracing nature of Scientology.

There are few standards wherewith to judge the effectiveness of all these different approaches to the problems that concern the human species. The results according to the patient are probably the only criteria.

If this be the criterion for the judgement of a form of treatment to enable the standard individual to enjoy his life more, then Scientology is superlatively more successful than any other subject. One could hardly imagine any psychoanalyst's patient, hypnotherapist's subject or successful release from a mental hospital being so impressed as to feel happy to sign a BILLION-YEAR CONTRACT to work for the people who have helped him.

The standard view of this would surely be that to even contemplate such an incredible move and for any organisation to even in its wildest daydreams expect anyone to take such a contract seriously and actually sign it with pen and ink in broad daylight and speak with pride of having undertaken such a curious step would demonstrate a unique, extreme, totally incurable and pathetic insanity.

Maybe so, but then what is the criterion?

[ Chapter Five | Table of Contents | Chapter Seven ]